United States Black Press

General Reference
Biography and Single Newspaper Studies
The Twenty-First Century Black Press
The Twentieth-Century Black Press
The Nineteenth-Century Black Press
Unpublished Research

General Reference

Abajian, James T. Blacks in Selected Newspapers, Censuses and Other Sources: an Index to Names and Subjects. Boston, MA: G. K.  Hall, 1977.

Black Newspaper Index. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1977-

Black Periodicals and Newspapers: a Union List of Holdings in Libraries of the University of Wisconsin and the Library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Compiled by Neil E. Strache…et a.l 2nd rev. ed. Madison: The Society, 1979.

Brown, Warren. Check List of Negro Newspapers in the United States, 1827-1947. School of Journalism Series 2 Jefferson City, MO: Lincoln University, School of Journalism , 1946.

Bryl, Susan and Erwin K. Welsh. Black Periodicals and Newspapers: a Union List of Holdings in the Libraries of the Universit of Wisconsin, and the Library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Memorial Library, 1975.

Campbell, Georgette. Extant Collections of Early Black Newspapers: A Research Guide to the Black Press, 1880-1915, With an Index to the Boston Guardian, 1902-1904.  Troy, NY: Whitson Publishing, 1981.

Daniel, Elenor Murphy and Adine McClarty Rollins. Index to Black Newspapers. Wooster, OH: Micro Photography Division, Bell and Howell, n.d.

Danky, James and Maureen E. Hady. eds.  African-American Newspapers and Periodicals: A National Bibliography.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Directory of U.S. Negro Newspapers, Magazines & Periodicals. [New York] U.S. Negro World.

Henritze, Barbara K. Bibliographic Checklist of African American Newspapers. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub Co, 1995.

Henritze, Barbara K. Bibliographic checklist of African American Newspapers. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Pub. Co.

Index to Black Newspapers. Wooster, OH: Bell & Howell Co. 1977-1986.

Index to the Schomburg Clipping File.  Alexandria, VA: Chadwick-Healy, 1986.

Jacobs, Donald M. Antebellum Black Newspapers: Indices to New York Freedom’s Journal (1827-1829) The Rights of All (1829), The Weekly Advocate (1837), and the Colored American (1837-1841). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970.

La Brie, Henry G. The Black Newspaper in America: a Guide. Iowa City: Institute for Communication Studies, University of Iowa, 1970.

La Brie, Henry G. The Black Press: A Bibliography. Kennebunkport, ME: Mercer House Press, 1973.

Minnesota Black Newspaper IndexMinnesota Historical Society.

Natanson, Nicholas, editor. Index to the Hampton University Newspaper Clipping File.. Alexandria, VA.

Pride, Armistead Scott. “The Names of Negroes Newspapers.” American Speech 29, no. 2 (May 1954): 114

Pride, Armistead Scott. Negro Newspapers on Microfilm: A Selected List. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Photoduplication Service, 1953.

Spradling, Mary Mace, editor. In Black and White: a Guide to Magazine Articles, Newspaper Articles, and Books Concerning More Than 15,000 Black Individuals and Groups. 3d. ed. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co.

Spradling, Mary Mace, editor. In Black and White: a Guide to Magazine Articles, Newspaper Articles, and Books Concerning More Than 6,700 Black Individuals and Groups. 3d. ed. Detroit, MI.

The Black Press Periodical Directory. 1973-1975. Newark, NJ: Black Press Clipping Bureau.

Biography and Single Newspaper Studies

Articles

Banner-Haley, C. P. T.  “The Philadelphia Tribune and Persistence of Black Republicanism during the Great Depression.” Pennsylvania History 65, no. 2 (1998): 190-20

Chase, Hal. “William C. Chase and the Washington BeeNegro History Bulletin. 36, no. 8. (1973): 172-174.

Clark, William E. “A Pioneer Negro Newspaper: The New York Age” Southern Workman 52 (January 1923): 16-20.

Coleman,  Jinx Broussard and Skye Chance Cooley. “William Worthy (JR): The Man and the Mission.” Journalism Studies 10, no. 3 (June 2009): 386-400.

Diggs-Brown, B. “Marvel Cooke: An African-American Woman Journalist Who Agitated for Racial Reform.” Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 16, no. 2 (1992): 47-68.

Fultz, Michael. “”The Morning Cometh”: African-American Periodicals, Education, and the Black Middle Class, 1900-1930.” The Journal of Negro History 80, no.3 (1995): 97-112.

Ingham, John N. and Lynne B. Feldman.  “Perry, Christopher James and Eugene Washington Rhodes.” African-American Business leaders: A Biographical Dictionary.  Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 1994.

Johnson, Violet M.  “Pan Africanism in Print: The Boston Chronicle and the Struggle for Black Liberation and Advancement, 1930-1950.”  in Print Culture in a Diverse America  (eds) James P. Danky and Wayne A. Wiegand. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1998.

Kornweibel, Theodore Jr. “The Most Dangerous of All Negro Journals”: Federal Efforts to Suppress the Chicago Defender During World War I.” American Journalism. 11, no. 2 (1994): 154-168.

Lorenz, Alfred Lawrence. “Ralph W. Tyler.” Journalism History 31, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 2-12.

Pietila, Antero. and Stacy Spaulding. “The The Afro-American’s World War II Correspondents: Feuilletonism as Social Action.” Literary Journalism Studies. 5, no.2 (Fall 2013): 37-58.

Roberts, R. (2000) Moore, Frederick Randolph. American National Biography Online Volume,  DOI

Stovall, Mary Elizabeth, “The Chicago Defender in the Progressive Era.” Illinois Historical Journal. 83, no 3 (Autumn 1990): 159-172.

Strother, Ella. T.  “The Black Image in the Chicago Defender, 1905-1975. Journalism History. 4, no. 4 (1977-1978): 137-141, 156.

Thornbrough, Emma Lou “American Negro Newspapers, 1880-1914.” Business History Review 40, no. 4 (1966): 467-468.

Thornbrough, Emma Lou “More Light on Booker T. Washington and the New York Age.” The Journal of Negro History 43, no. 1 (1958): 34-49.

Thornton, Michael C. “Meaningful Dialogue? The Los Angeles Sentinel’s Depiction of Black and Asian American Relations, 1993-2000.” Journal Of Black Studies 42, no. 8 (2011): 1275-1298.

Washburn, Patrick S. “The Pittsburgh Courier’s Double V Campaign in 1942.” American Journalism. 3, no.2 (1986): 73-86.

Books

Alexander, Ann Field. Race Man: The Rise and Fall of the “Fighting Editor” John Mitchell Jr.  Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 2002.

Anderson, Dorothy, Pauline. The History of the Tribune. Philadelphia, 1959.

Blackett, R. J. M., ed. Thomas Morris Chester, Black Civil War Correspondent: His Dispatches from the Virginia Front. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

Buni, Andrew.  Robert L. Vann of the Pittsburgh Courier: Politics and Black Journalism. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1974.

Carins, Kathleen A. “The Press As Pulpit: Charlotta Bass and the California Eagle.” Front-Page Women Journalists, 1920-1950. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.

Farrar, Haywood. The Baltimore Afro-American, 1892-1950.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Finley, Cheryl et al. Teenie Harris, Photographer: Image Memory, History Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011.

Fox, Stephen R. The Guardian of Boston: William Monroe Trotter New York: Atheneum, 1970.

Giddings, Paula.  Ida: A Sword Among Lions: Ida. B. Well and the Campaign Against Lynching. New York: Harper Collins. 2008.

Goldstein, Nancy. Jackie Ormes: The First African American Woman Cartoonist. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2008.

Hughes, Langston. Langston Hughes and the Chicago Defender: Essays on Race, Politics, and Culture, 1942-1962. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1995.

Hogan Lawrence. A Black National News Service: The Associated Negro Press and Claude Barnett, 1919-1945. Rutherford: Farleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1984.

Ottley, Roi. World War II: The Lost Diary of African American Journalist. edited by Mark A. Huddle.  Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 2012.

Ottley, Roi. The Lonely Warrior: The Life and Times of Robert S. Abbott. Chicago: H. Regnery, 1955.

Rapp, A. B.  A Marginalized Voice for Racial Justice: Charlotta Bass and Oppositional Politics, 1914-1960. Santa Barbara: University of California, 2005.

Rhodes, Jane. Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Streitmatter, Rodger. Raising Her Voice: African-American Women Journalists Who Changed History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994

Suggs, Henry Lewis. P.B. Young, Newspaperman: Race, Politics and Journalism in the New South, 1910-1962. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 1988.

Thornbrough, Emma Lou.  T. Thomas Fortune: Militant Journalist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.

The Twenty-First Century Black Press

Articles/Essays

Cohen, Elisia et al. “Cancer Coverage in General-Audience and Black Newspapers.” Health Communication 23, no. 5 (Sept./Oct. 2008): 427-435.

Dolan, Mark K. and John H. Sonnett “Katrina Coverage in Black Newspapers Critical of Government Mainstream Media” Newspaper Research Journal 30, no.1 (Winter 2009): 34-42.

Everett, Anna.  “New Black Public Sphere: The Case of the Black Press in the Age of Digital Reproduction.”  Digital Diaspora: A Race for Cyberspace.  Albany: State University of New York Press, Albany, 2009.

Israel, Benjamin. “Argus Makes Strong Comeback.” St. Louis Journalism Review 34, no. 270 (October 2004): 14-29

Israel, Benjamin. “Oldest Black Newspaper in St. Louis on Last Legs.” St. Louis Journalism Review 33, no. 259 (September 2003): 22.

Len-Ríos, Maria E. et al. “Study Asks if Reporter’s Gender or Audience Predict Paper’s Cancer Coverage.” Newspaper Research Journal, 29, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 91-99.

Moody-Hall, Mia. “The Tables Turned: A Study of Black Vs. Mainstream Press’ Framing of Racial Profiling Pre and Post Sept. 11.” Conference Papers — International Communication Association (May 26, 2005): 1-34.

Newkirk, Pamela. “The Not-So-Great Migration.” Columbia Journalism Review  (May/June 2011).

Weill, Susan and Laura Castañeda, “Emphathetic Rejectionism” and Inter-Ethnic Agenda Setting: Coverage of Latinos by the Black Press in the American South” Journalism Studies 5, no. 4 (November 2004): 537-550.

Wang, Qian and Cory L. Armstrong. “Black Newspapers Focus More on Community Affairs Stories.” Newspaper Research Journal. 33, 4 (Fall 2012): 78-90.

Books

Duncan, Mae Najiyyah. A Survey of Cincinnati’s Black Press & Its Editors1844-2010. Xlibris Corporation.

Other

Cavanaugh, Laurie. “Q&A: LaShonda Katrice Barnett.” Library Journal 140, no. 3 (February 15, 2015): 92.

The Twentieth-Century Black Press

Articles/Essays

Ammons, Linda, John Dimmick, and Joseph J. Pilotta. “Crime News Reporting in a Black Weekly.” Journalism Quarterly 59, no. 2 (Summer 1982): 310-313

Baldasty, Gerald J., and Mark E. LaPoint.  “The Press and the African-American Community: The Role of the Northwest Enterprise in the 1930s.”  Pacific Northwest Quarterly 94 (Winter 2002-2003): 14-26.

Banner-Haley, Charles Pete.  “The Philadelphia Tribune and the Persistence of Black Republicanism During the Great Depression.”  Pennsylvania History 65:2 (Spring 1998): 190-202.

Bayton, James A. and Ernestine Bell. “An Exploratory Study of the Role of the Negro Press.” Journal of Education. 20, no. 1 (Winter 1951): 8-15.

Beard, Richard L., and Cyril E. Zoerner.  “Associated Negro Press: Its Founding, Ascendency, and Demise.”  Journalism Quarterly 46 (Spring 1969): 47-52.

Berardi, Gayle K.  and Thomas W. Segady.  “Community Identification and Cultural Formation: The Role of African American Newspapers in the American West, 1880-1914.” Briot 10, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 13-19.

Berardi, Gayle K.  and Thomas W. Segady. “The Development of African-American Newspapers in the American West: A Sociohistorical Pespective.” Journal of Negro History 75, no. 3-4. (Summer-Fall 1990): 9-111.

Boyd, Herb.  “The Black Press: A Long History of Service and Advocacy.” Crisis, 98, no. 3 (March 1991): 10-13.

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  “Exhortation to Action: The Writings of Amy Jacques Garvey, Journalist and Black Nationalist.”  Journalism History 32:2 (Summer 2006): 87-95.

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  “Exhortation to Action.” Journalism Historian.  32, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 87-95.

Burma, J. H.  “An Analysis of the Present Negro Press.” Social Forces. 26, no. 2 (1947): 172-180.

Carroll, Brian. “From Fraternity to Fracture: Black Press Coverage of and Involvement in Negro League Baseball in the 1920s.” American Journalism. 23, no. 2. (Spring 2006): 69-95.

Carroll, Brian. “Early Twentieth-Century Heroes.” Journalism History. 32, no.1 (Spring 2006): 34-42.

Carter, Julette, B.  “The Role of the Black Press in the 1923 Trial of Marcus Mosiah Garvey.” American Journalism.  14, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 131-147.

Clarke, John Henrick. “Africa and the American Negro Press.” The Journal of Negro Education. 30, no. 1 (Winter 1961): 64-68.

Clawson, Rosalee A.  Harry C. “Neil” Strine IV and Eric N. Waltenburg. “Framing Supreme Court Decisions: The Mainstream versus the Black Press.” Journal of Black Studies. 33, no. 6 (July 2003): 784-800.

Cooper, Caryl.  “Selling Negro Women to Negro Women and the World.” Journalism History. 39, 4 (Winter 2014): 241-249.

Cronin, Mary M. “A Chance to Build for Our Selves: Black Press Boosterism in Oklahoma.” Journalism History 26, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 71-80.

Cronin, Mary M. “Mixing Protest & Accommodation: The Response of Oklahoma’s Black Town Newspaper Editors to Race Relations, 1891-1918. American Journalism. 19, no. 2. (Spring, 2002): 45-64.

Daniel, Walter C. and Patrick J. Huber. “The Voice of the Negro and the Atlanta Riot of 1906: A Problem in the Freedom of the Press.” Journalism History. 17, no. 1-2. (Spring-Summer 1990): 23-28.

Dates, Jannette L. “Print News.” in Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media. Washington, D.C., Howard University Press. 1998.

De Santis, Christopher (ed). Langston Hughes and the Chicago Defender: Essays on Race Politics and Culture, 1942-1962.  Urbana: University of Illinois, 1995.

Detweiler, Frederick G. “The Negro Press Today.” 391-400: The University of Chicago Press, 1938.

Dolan, Mark K. “Extra! Chicago Defender Race Records Ads Show South from Afar.”  Southern Cultures 13, no. 2 (Fall 2007): 106-124.

Dooley, Patricia L. “Jim Crow Strikes Again: The African American Press Campaign Against Segregation in Bowling During World War II” Journal of African American History 97, no. 3 (Summer 2012): 270-290.

Dunla, John, Glenn. “The Black Fourth Estate: Class and the Shaping of the Black Freedom Struggle in the Second Quarter of the Twentieth Century.” Perspectives: A Journal of Historical Inquiry 39 ((Winter 2012): 23-47.

Everbacli, Tracy. “Breaking Baseball Barriers: The 1953 -1954 Negro League and Expansion of Women’s Public Roles.” American Journalism 22, no. 1 (Winter 2005): 13-33.

Fearn-Banks, Kathleen. “African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.” Newspaper Research Journal 15, no. 4 (Fall 1994): 98-116.

Fenderson, Lewis H.  “The Negro Press as a Social Instrument.” The Journal of Negro Education 20, no. 2 (1951):181-188.

Gallon, Kim. “How Much Can You Read about Interracial Love and Sex without Getting Sore?: Readers’ Debate over Interracial Relationships in the Baltimore Afro-American.” Journalism History (Summer 2013): 105-115.

Gallon, Kim. “Silences Kept: The Absence of Gender and Sexuality in Black Press Historiography” History Compass, 10, no. 2 (February 2012): 207-218.

Garland, Phyl. “The Black Press: Down But Not Out.” Columbia Journalism Review 21, no. 3 (September 1982): 43-50.

Glick, Josh.  “Mixed Messages: D.W. Griffith and the Black Press, 1916-1931.  Film History. 23, 2 (Jun 2011): 174-195.

Gooden, Amoaba.  “Visual Representations of Feminine Beauty in the Black Press: 1915-1950.” Journal of Pan African Studies  4, no. 4, (June 2011): 82-93.

Grimes, Charlotte. “Civil Rights and the Press: A Debate,” Journalism Studies  6 no. 1 (February 2005): 117-134.

Hankins, Laurel.  “What the Fold Printed: Verse Culture and the Black Press in 1865 New Orleans.” African American Review 45, 4.  (Winter 2012): 527-540.

Israel, Benjamin. “They’re Back.” St. Louis Journalism Review 34, no. 262 (December 2003): 6.

Israel, Benjamin. “Argus 96: A Proud History.” St. Louis Journalism Review 38, no. 305 (May 2008): 4.

Kreiling, Albert. (1993). “The Commericalization of the Black Press and the Rise of Race News in Chicago”. Ruthless Criticism: New Perspectives in U.S. Communication History. R. W. McChesney (eds). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Lacy, Stephen, and Karyn A. Ramsey. “The Advertising Content of African American Newspapers.” Journalism Quarterly 71, no. 3 (September 1994): 521-530.

Lamb, Chris and Glen Bleske.  “Democracy on the Field.” Journalism History. 24 no. 2, (Summer 1998): 51-58.

Lawson, Marjorie Mckenzie. “The Adult Education Aspects of the Negro Press.” Journal Negro Education.  14, no. 3, (1945): 431-436.

Logan, Rayford W. “Negro Youth and the Influence of the Press, Radio, and Cinema.” The Journal of Negro Education.  9, no. 3 (July 1940): 425-434.

Lumsden, Linda. “Good Mothers With Guns: Framing Black Womanhood in the Black Panther, 1968-1980” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86, no. 4, (Winter 2009): 900-922.

Lumsden, Linda. Women’s Lib Has No Soul” Journalism History.  35. no. 3, (Fall 2009): 118-130.

Maugliulo, Myrna Colettte, “Andrew J. Smitherman: A Pioneer of the African American Press, 1909-1961/  34, 2. (Jul. 2010): 119-153.

McCandless, Phyra M.  “Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black PRess.” American Journal of Public Health.  102. 4, (Apr. 2012): 739-750.

Meier, August. “Booker T, Washington and the Negro Press: With Special Reference to the Colored American Magazine.” Journal of Negro History.  38, no. 1, (January 1953): 67-90.

Mislan, Cristina. “An ‘Obedient Servant’: Internationalizing and Capitalizing on Blackness in Marcus Garvey’s Negro World.” Journalism History, 39, no. 2, (Summer 2013): 115-125.

Myrdal, Gunnar, et al.  “The Negro Press” in An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. Volume I. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1944.

O’Kelly, C. G.  “Black Newspapers and the Black Protest Movement: Their Historical Relationship, 1827-1945.” Phylon 43,  no. 1 (1982): 1-14.

Painter, Nell.  “Black Journalism, the First Hundred Years.”  Harvard Journal of Afro-American Affairs  2, no. 2 (1970): 30-42.

Prattis, P.L. “The Role of the Negro Press in Race Relations.” Phylon 7, no. 3  (3rd Qtr.1946): 273-283

Rasmussen, Amy Cabrera. “Causes and Solutions: Mainstream and Black Press Framing of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.” Howard Journal Of Communications 25, no. 3 (July 2014): 257-280.

Rhodes, Jane.  “The Black Panther Newspaper: Standard-bearer for Modern Black Nationalism” Media History 7 no. 2 (2001): 151-158.

Rhodes, Jane.  “The Black Press and Radical Print Culture.” A History of the Book in America: Volume 5: The Enduring Book: Print Culture in Postwar America. ed. David Paul Nord et al., 286-203. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009

Robbins, Richard. “Counter-Assertion in the New York Press.” Phylon 10, no. 2 (1949): 126-136.

Roscho, Bernard. “What the Black Press said Last Summer.” Columbia Journalism Review 6, no. 3 (Fall 1967): 6-9.

Ross, Felicia Jones. “The Cleveland Call and Post and the Election of Carl B. Stokes.” Journalism History, 33, no. 4, (Winter 2008): 215-223.

Spaulding, Stacy. “As Though the Sixties Never Happened”: Newspaper Coverage of a First Amendment Battle Over Baltimore’s Last Blackface Act.” American Journalism  29, no. 3 (Summer 2012): 59-83.

Stevens, John D. “The Black Press Looks at 1920’s Journalism.” Journalism History 7, no. 3-4 (1980): 109-13.

Stroman, Carolyn A. “The Chicago Defender and the Mass Migration of Blacks, 1916-1918.” The Journal of Popular Culture 15, no. 2 (1981): 62-67.

Strother, Ella T. “The Race-Advocacy Function of the Black Press.” Black American Literature Forum 12, no. 3 (1978): 92-99.

“Suggs’ Chosen Right-Hand Man Seems Unlikely, at First Glance.” St. Louis Journalism Review 37, no. 298 (August 2007): 10.

Syrjamaki, John. “The Negro Press in 1938.” Sociology & Social Research (1939-1940): 43-52.

Taketani, Etsuko.  “Colored Empires in the 1930s: Black Internationalism, the U.S. Black Press, and George Samuel Schuyler.  American Literature. 82, 1 (March 2010): 121-149.

Thornton, Brian. “Pleading Their Own Cause.” Journalism History 32, no. 3 (Fall 2006): 168-178

Thornton, Brian. “Black Newspapers in 1968 Offer Panthers Little Support.” Newspaper Research Journal, 29, no. 1 (Winter 2008): 6-20.

Thornton, Michael C. “Meaningful Dialogue? The Los Angeles Sentinel’s Depiction of Black and Asian American Relations, 1993-2000.” Journal Of Black Studies 42, no. 8 (2011): 1275-1298.

Wade-Gayles, Gloria, “Black Women Journalists in the South, 1880-1905: An Approach to the Study of Black Women’s History” Callaloo 4, no. 11/13 (Feb-Oct. 1981): 139.

Wallace, Aurora. “The Black Press Goes to War.” Newspapers and the Making of Modern America: A History Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Washburn, Patrick S. “J. Edgar Hoover and the Black Press in World War II” Journalism History  13, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 26-33.

Wilkerson, Doxey A. “The Negro Press.” Journal of Negro Education. 16, no. 4 (Autumn 1947): 511-521.

Wynne, Lewis N. “Brownsville: The Reaction of the Negro Press.” Phylon  33, no. 2 (1972): 153-160.

Zackodnik, Teresa. “Recirculation and Feminist Black Internationalism in Jessie Fauset’s “The Looking Glass” and Amy Jacques Garvey’s “Our Women and What They Think” Modernism/Modernity, 19, no. 2 (September 2012), 437-459.

Books

Brooks, Maxwell R. The Negro Press Re-Examined: Political Content of Leading Negro Newspapers. Boston, MA: Christopher Publishing House, 1959.

Brousard, Jinx. African American Foreign Correspondents: A History. Louisiana Press, 2013.

Carroll, Brian. When to Stop the Cheering: The Black Press, the Black Community and the Integration of Professional Baseball. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Dawkins, Wayne. Black Journalists: The NABJ Story. Sicklerville, NJ: August Press, 1993.

Duncan, Mae Najiyyah. A Survey of Cincinnati’s Black Press & Its Editors, 1844-2010. Xlibris Corporation.

Eldridge, Allen Lawrence. Chronicles of a Two-Front War: Civil Rights and Viertnam in the African American Press. Columbia, MO.; London: University of Missouri Press, 2011.

Finkle, Lee. Forum for Protest: The Black Press During World War II. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, Inc., 1975.

Gore, George. Negro Journalism: An Essay on the History and Present Conditions of the Negro Press. Greencastle, IN: Journalism Press, 1922.

Marks, George, P. The Black Press Views American Imperialism, 1880-1900. New York: Arno, 1971.

Jordan, W. G. Black Newspapers and America’s War For Democracy, 1914-1920. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

La Brie III, Henry G, ed. Perspectives of the Black Press, 1974. Kennebunkport, Maine: Mercer House Press, 1974.

Lyle, Jack, ed. The Black American and the Press.  University of California, Los Angeles: Ward Ritchie Press , 1968.

Moody, Mia Nodeen. Black and Mainstream Press’ Framing of Racial Profiling: A Historical Perspective. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2008.

Oak, Vishnu V. The Negro Newspaper. Westport, CT: Negro University Press, 1948.

Penn, I. Garland. The Afro-American Press and its Editors. Salem, New Hampshire: Ayer Company, Publishers, Inc., 1891.

Pride, Armistead and Clint C. Wilson II. A History of the Black Press. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1997.

Rice, Myit, Sengstacke. Chicago Defender (Images of America) Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2012.

Senna, Carl. The Black Press and the Struggle for Civil Rights. New York: Franklin Watts, 1993.

Simmons, C. A. The African American Press: A History of News Coverage During National Crises, with Special Reference to Four Black Newspapers, 1827-1965. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland & Co., 2006.

Streitmatter, Rodger. Raising Her Voice: African American Women Journalists Who Changed History. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1994.

Suggs, Henry Lewis. ed. The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Thompson, Julius E. The Black Press in Mississippi, 1865-1985.  Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.

Tinney, James S. and Justine J. Rector. Issues and Trends in Afro-American Journalism. Washington, DC: University Press of America, Inc., 1980.

Vincent, Theodore G. Voices of a Black Nation: Political Journalism in the Harlem Renaissance.  Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1973.

Vogel, Todd ed. The Black Press: New Literary and Historical Essays. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Washburn, Patrick S. The African American Newspaper: Voices of Freedom. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2006.

Washburn, Patrick S. A Question of Sedition: The Federal Government’s Investigation of the Black Press During World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Wolseley, Roland Edgar. The Black Press, U.S.A. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1971.

The Nineteenth-Century Black Press

Articles/Essays

“Origins of the Black Press.” Quill 94, no. 1 (January 2006): 7.

Bacon, Jacqueline.  “The History of Freedom’s Journal: A Study in Empowerment and Community.”  Journal of African American History 88 (Spring 2003): 163-181.

Bacon, Jacqueline. “‘Acting as Freemen’: Rhetoric, Race, and Reform in the Debate over Colonization in Freedom’s Journal, 1827–1828.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 93 (February 2007): 58–83.

Bederman, Gail.  “Civilization,’ the Decline of Middle-Class Manliness, and Ida B. Wells’s Antilynching Campaign (1892-94).  Radical History Review 52 (1992): 5-30.

Berardi, Gayle K.  and Thomas W. Segady.  “Community Identification and Cultural Formation: The Role of African American Newspapers in the American West, 1880-1914.” Briot 10, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 13-19.

Berardi, Gayle K.  and Thomas W. Segady. “The Development of African-American Newspapers in the American West: A Sociohistorical Pespective.” Journal of Negro History 75, no. 3-4. (Summer-Fall, 1990): 9-111.

Berardi, Gayle K., ad Thomas W. Segady.  “The Development of African American Newspapers in the American West: A Sociohistorical Perspective.”  Journal of Negro History 75 (Summer/Fall 1990): 96-111.

Berardi, Gayle, and Thomas W. Segady. “Community Identification and Cultural Formation:  The Role of African American Newspapers in the American West, 1880-1914.” Briot 10:1 (Spring 1991): 13-19.

Blocker, Jr., Jack S.  “Building Networks:  Cooperation and Communication Among African Americans in the Urban Midwest, 1860-1910.” Indiana Magazine of History 99:4 (December 2003): 370-386.

Boyd, Herb.  “The Black Press: A Long History of Service and Advocacy.” Crisis,  98, no. 3 (March 1991): 10-13.

Burrowes, Carl Patrick. “In Common with Colored Men, I Have Certain Sentiments: Black Nationalism and Hilary Teage of the Liberia Herald.”  American Journalism 16:3 (1999): 17-35.

Cronin, Mary M. “A Chance to Build for Our Selves: Black Press Boosterism in Oklahoma.” Journalism History 26, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 71-80.

Cronin, Mary M. “Mixing Protest & Accommodation: The Response of Oklahoma’s Black Town Newspaper Editors to Race Relations, 1891-1918. American Journalism. 19, no. 2. (Spring, 2002): 45-64.

Dates, J. J.  “Print News.” Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media.  eds. J. J. Dates and W. Barlow. Washington, D.C., Howard University Press, 1990.

Domke, David. “The Black Press in the ‘Nadir’ of African Americans.” Journalism History, 20, no. 3/4 (Autumn/Winter 1994): 131-137.

Frisken, Amanda K. “A Song Without Words”: Anti-Lynching Imagery in the African American Press, 1889-1898 Journal of African American History  97, no. 3 (Summer, 2012): 240-269.

Helwig, Timothy. “Black and White Print: Cross-Racial Strategies of Class Solidarity in Mechanics’ Free Press and Freedom’s Journal.” American Periodicals 19, no. 2 (2009): 117-135.

Mcclish, Glen. “Frederick Douglass and the Consequences of Rhetoric: The Interpretive Framing and Publication History of the 2 January 1893 Haiti Speeches.”  Rhetorica, 30, no. 1 (Winter 2012): 37-73.

Myrdal, Gunnar, et al.  “The Negro Press” in An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, volume I. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1944.

O’Kelly, C. G. (1982). “Black Newspapers and the Black Protest Movement: Their Historical Relationship, 1827-1945.” Phylon 43, no 1 (1st Quarter 1982): 1-14.

Painter, Nell.  “Black Journalism, the First Hundred Years.”  Harvard Journal of Afro-American Affairs  2, no. 2 (1970): 30-42.

Palmer, Allen, W. “Fires of Discontent: Religious Contradictions in the Black Press, 1830-1860” Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century Press.  eds. David B. Sachsman et al. Lafayette, IN.:Purdue University Press, 2009.

Peeples, Matthew.  “Creating Political Authority.” Journalism History  34, no.  2 (Summer 2008): 76-86.

Ratzlaff, Aleen J. “Ebony Triangle: The Black Newspaper Network in Kansas,” Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century Press  eds. David B. Sachsman et al. Lafayette, IN.:Purdue University Press, 2009.

Ratzlaff, Aleen J. “Ida B. Wells, Crusader Against the Lynch Law” Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century Press. eds. David B. Sachsman et al. Lafayette, IN.:Purdue University Press, 2009

Ratzlaff, Aleen J. “Illustrated African American Journalism: Political Cartooning in the Indianapolis Freeman” Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century  eds. David B. Sachsman et al. Lafayette, IN.: Purdue University Press, 2009.

Rhodes, Jane.  “The Black Press and Radical Print Culture.” A History of the Book in America: Volume 5: The Enduring Book: Print Culture in Postwar America. ed. David Paul Nord et al., 286-203. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009

Rhodes, Jane. “Race Money, Politics and the Antebellum Black Press” Journalism History 20 no. 3/4 ( Autumn/Winter, 1994): 95-108.

Tripp. Bernell E. “Frederick Jackson Turner Revisted: The Frontier Character of the 19th Century Black Press” Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century Press. eds. David B. Sachsman et al. Lafayette, IN.: Purdue University Press, 2009.

Trotti, Michael. “African American Sensations: Jim Crow Justice and the Richmond Planet”  in The Body in Reservoir: Murder & Sensationalism in the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2008.

Walker, Kimberly G. “Broken Shackles: How Frederick Douglass Used the Freedom of the Press, Speech, and Religion in Behalf of the African American Slave, 1847-1863” in Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century Press. eds. David B. Sachsman et al. Lafayette, IN.:Purdue University Press, 2009.

Books

—–. The Black Press in the South, 1865-1979. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Bacon, Jacqueline. Freedom’s Journal: The First African-American Newspaper. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Broussard, Jinx Coleman.  Giving Voice to the Voiceless: Four Pioneering Black Women Journalists.  New York: Routledge, 2004

Bullock, Penelope L. The Afro-American Periodical Press, 1838-1909. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

Bullock, Penelope.  The African-American Periodical Press, 1838-1909. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

Dann, Martin E., ed. The Black Press, 1827-1890: The Quest for National Identity. New York: Putnam, 1971.

Detwiler, Frederick G. The Negro Press in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922.

Duncan, Mae Najiyyah. A Survey of Cincinnati’s Black Press & Its Editors1844-2010. Xlibris Corporation

Gore, George. Negro Journalism: An Essay on the History and Present Conditions of the Negro Press. Greencastle, IN: Journalism Press, 1922.

Hutton, Frankie.  “Democratic Idealism in the Black Press.” in Outsiders in Nineteenth-Century Black Press History eds. Frankie Hutton and Barbara S. Reed. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2009.

—–. The Early Black Press in America, 1827-1860. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Oak, Vishnu V. The Negro Newspaper. Westport, CT: Negro University Press, 1948.

Simmons, C. A. The African American Press: A History of News Coverage During National Crises, with Special Reference to Four Black Newspapers, 1827-1965. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland & Co, 1998.

Suggs, Henry Lewis, ed. The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Thompson, Julius E. The Black Press in Mississippi, 1865-1985. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.

Tripp, Bernell. Origins of the Black Press: New York 1827-1847. Northport, AL: Vision Press, 1992.

Unpublished Research

Select Doctoral Thesis

Akil, Bakari.  “African American News Websites: Publishers’ Views Perspectives and Experiences in Relation to the Social Construction of News, Online News and the Black Press.” PhD diss., Florida State University, 2007.

Alexander, Ann F.  “Black Protest in the New South:  John Mitchell, Jr. (1863-1929) & the Richmond Planet,” PhD dissertation, Duke University, 1973.

Alexander, Shawn Leigh.  “Marcus Garvey and the Chicago Defender, 1917-1923.”  PhD dissertation, University of Iowa, 1995.

Alexander, Shawn Leigh. “Marcus Garvey and the Chicago Defender, 1917-1923. PhD diss., University of Iowa, 1995.

Anderson, Daniel Roger.  “Renaissance Men: The Harlem Intelligentsia, the African–American Press, and the Culture of Sport, 1918–1940.”  PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 2005.

Berry, General, E. “The Nine Eleven Crisis: A Comparison of Selected Black Newspapers.”  PhD diss., Texas Southern University, 2008.

Bowie, Rian.  “Is There a Woman in the Text? The Black Press and the Emergence of Organized Black Womanhood, 1827-1900.” PhD diss., Emory University, 2007.

Brown, Karen F.  “The Black Press of Tennessee: 1865-1980.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, 1982.

Burroughs, Todd S.  “Drums in the Global Village: Toward an Ideological History of Black Media.”  PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, 2001.

Byers, Stephen Robert.  “Diverse Community, Diverse Newspapers:  How Milwaukee’s Black Press Reflected its Diversity, 1968-2002.”  PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2004.

Byers, Stephen Robert. “Diverse Community, Diverse Newspapers: How Milwaukee’s Black Press Reflected its Diversity, 1968-2002.” PhD diss., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2004.

Calloway, Candace Michelle. “News Media, Black Women and Hurricane Katrina: Comparing Localized Content to Local Perceptions.”  PhD diss., Howard University, 2009.

Campbell, Yolanda Denise.  “Outsiders Within: A Framing Analysis of Eight Black and White U.S. Newspaper Coverage of the Civil Rights Movement 1954-1964.”  PhD diss., University of Southern Mississippi, 2011.

Carlisle, Anthony Todd.  “The Black Press and the Shaping of Protest in African American Literature, 1840-1935.”  PhD diss.,  Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

Carroll, Brian.  “When to Stop Cheering?  The Black Press, the Black Community, and the Integration of Professional Baseball.”  PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2003.

Carroll, Frederick James. ” Race News: How Black Reporters and Readers Shaped the Fight for Racial Justice, 1877—1978.” PhD diss., The College of William and Mary, 2012

Chase, Hal.   “Honey for Friends, Stings for Enemies’: William Calvin Chase and The Washington Bee, 1882-1921.” PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1973.

Clark, Tanya N.  “Quilting the Race:  Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, the Colored American Magazine, & the African American Family, 1900-1905.” PhD dissertation, Temple University, 2004.

Davis, H. V. “The Black Press: From Mission to Commercialism, 1827-1927.” PhD diss.,  University of Michigan, 1990.

Davis, Henry Vance.  “The Black Press: From Mission to Commercialization, 1827-1927.”  PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990.

DeSantis, Alan Douglas.  “Selling the American Dream: The Chicago Defender and the Great Migration of 1915-1919.” PhD dissertation, University of Indiana, 1993.

DeSantis, Alan Douglas. “Selling the American Dream: the Chicago Defender and the Great Migration of 1915-1919. PhD diss., Indiana University, 1993.

Eldridge, Lawrence Allen.  Chronicles of a Two-Front War: The African American Press and the Vietnam War.”  PhD diss.,  University of Illinois, 2002.

Ellis, Charlesetta M.  “Robert S. Abbott’s Response to Education for African-Americans via the Chicago Defender, 1909-1940.” PhD dissertation, Loyola University, 1994

Fagan, Benjamin Patrick, The Black Newspaper and the American Nation, 1827-1862, University of Virginia, 2011.

Flournoy, John Craig. “Reporting the Movement in Black and White: The Emmett Till Lynching and the Montgomery Buss Boycott.” PhD diss.,  Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 2003.

Foster Greene, Debra.  “Published in the Interest of Colored People: The St. Louis Argus Newspaper in the 20th Century.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 2003.

Gallon, Kim T.  “Between Respectability and Modernity: Black Newspapers and Sexuality, 1925-1940.”  PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

Gordon, Yanela Natacha. “Preserver of the Press: The Historical Mission and Evolution of the “Capital Outlook” Newspaper.” PhD diss., Florida State University, 2005.

Graham, Darryl Eduard. “The Chicago Defender: The Image of Black Women, 1915-1920.” PhD Diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991.

Greennidge, Kerri.  “Bulwark of the Nation: The Northern Black Press, Political Radicalism and Civil Rights, 1859-1909.” PhD diss., Boston University, 2012.

Guthrie, Ricardo Antonio. “Examining Political Narratives of the Black Press in the West: Dr. Carlton B. Goodlett and the San Franciso “Sun Reporter” (1950s-1960s).” PhD diss., University of California, San Diego, 2006.

Guthrie, Ricardo Antonio. “Examining Political Narratives of the Black Press in the West: Dr. Carlton B. Goodlet and the San Francisco ‘Sun-Reporter’ (1950s–1960s).”  PhD dissertation, University of California- San Diego, 2006.

Hall, Nora D.  “On Being an African-American Woman:  Gender and Race in the Writings of Six Black Women Journalists, 1894-1936.” PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1998.

Hyman, Mark J.  “Afrocentric Leanings of Black Church Owned Newspapers from Mid-Nineteenth Century to World War I.” PhD dissertation, Temple University, 1991.

Jackson, Sarah J.  “African American Celebrity Dissent and a Tale of two Public Spheres: A Critical and Comparative Analysis of the Mainstream and Black Press, 1949-2005.” PhD diss.,  University of Minnesota, 2010.

Johnson, James Wesley.  “The Associated Negro Press: A Medium of International News and Information, 1919-1967.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1976.

Jordan, William George. ‘”Getting America Told’: The Black Press and its Dialogue with White America, 1914-1919,” PhD diss., University of New Hampshire, 2007.

Kreiling, Albert.  “The Making of Racial Identities in the Black Press: A Cultural Analysis of Race Journalism in Chicago, 1878-1928.”  PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, 1973.

McGhee, Flora A. C.  “Mississippi Black Newspapers:  Their History, Content, and Future.” PhD dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1985.

Moses, Jennifer. “Writing the “Age”: T. Thomas Fortune, the African American Press and the Unfolding of Jim Crow America, 1880-1930.” PhD diss., University of Delaware, 2012.

Muhammad, Baiyina W.  “‘What is Africa to Us’?  The Baltimore Afro American’s Coverage of the African Diaspora, 1915-1941.” PhD dissertation, Morgan State University, 2004.

Perry, Earnest Lee, Jr.  “Voice of Consciousness: The Negro Newspaper Publishers Association During World War II.”  PhD dissertation, University of Missouri, 1998.

Rapp, Anne Barbara. “A Marginalized Voice for Racial Justice: Charlotta Bass and Oppositional Politics, 1914-1960.” PhD diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 2005.

Rathbun, Betty Lou K.  “The Rise of the Modern American Negro Press, 1880-1914.”  PhD dissertation, State University of New York-Buffalo, 1979.

Ratzlaff, Aleen.  “Black Press Pioneers in Kansas: Connecting and Extending Communities in Three Geographic Sections, 1878-1900.  PhD diss., University of Florida, 2001.

Salleh, Fatimah.  “Empowered Women Resist: Three Black Women Journalists in the Struggle for Civil Rights.” PhD diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2012.

Shelton, Vanessa. “Interpretive Community and the Black Press: Race Equality and Politics in the St Louis and the St. Louis Argus, 1928-1956.” PhD diss., University of Iowa, 2007.

Slagle, Mark. “Mightier than the Sword?  The Black Press and the end of Racial Segregation in the U.S. Military, 1948-1954.”  PhD diss., University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Terrell, Martin Jackson. “A Study of the Chicago Defender’s ‘Great Northern Drive.'” PhD diss., Ohio University, 1991.

Tripp, Bernell E. “Black Women Journalists, 1825-1860.”  PhD dissertation, University of Alabama, 1993.

Tripp, Bernell.  “Black Women Journalists, 1825-1860.”   PhD diss., Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, 1993.

Watson, Jamal E.   “Ethel Payne: The First Lady of the Black Press: Black Journalism and Its Advocacy Role from 1954-1991.” PhD diss., University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2012.

Weaver, Billy L. “The Educative Role of Black Newspapers, 1920-1930.”   PhD dissertation, Indiana University, 1979.

Williams, Linda Darnette. “An Analysis of American Sportswomen in two Negro Newspapers: The Pittsburgh Courier, 1924-1948 and the Chicago Defender, 1932-1948. PhD Diss., Ohio University, 1987.

Young, Sandra S.  “A Different Journey: John Brown Russwurm, 1799-1851.”  PhD dissertation, Boston College, 2004.

Select Masters Theses

Elliott, Melissa Mae. “News in the Negro Press.” Masters Thesis, The University of Chicago, 1931.

Mislan, Cristina.  “The Black Press as Political Institution: How the Chicago Defender Portrayed Jesse Jackson and Barack Obama’s Historical Presidential Campaigns.” Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 2009.